RF Based Wireless Remote Control System

It is often required to switch electrical appliances from a distance without being a direct line of sight between the transmitter and receiver. As you may well know, an RF based wireless remote control system (RF Transmitter & RF Receiver) can be used to control an output load from a remote place. RF transmitter, as the name suggests, uses radio frequency to send the signals at a particular frequency and a baud rate.

The RF receiver can receive these signals only if it is configured for the pre-defined signal/data pattern. An ideal solution for this application is provided by compact transmitter and receiver modules, which operate at a frequency of 434 MHz and are available ready-made. Here, the radio frequency (RF) transmission system employs Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) with transmitter (and receiver) operating at 434 MHz. The use of the ready-made RF module simplifies the construction of a wireless remote control system and also makes it more reliable.

RF Transmitter

434MHz transmitter moduleThis simple RF transmitter, consisting of a 434MHz license-exempt Transmitter module and an encoder IC , was designed to remotely switch simple appliances on and off. The RF part consists of a standard 434MHz transmitter module, which works at a frequency of 433.92 MHz and has a range of about 400m according to the manufacture. The transmitter module has four pins. Apart from “Data” and the “Vcc” pin, there is a common ground (GND) for data and supply. Last is the RF output (ANT) pin.

Pin Assignment of the 434MHz Transmitter module

Pin Assignment of the  434MHz  Transmitter module

Note that, for the transmission of a unique signal, an encoder is crucial. For this, I have used the renowned encoder IC HT12E from Holtek. HT12E is capable of encoding information which consists of N address bits and 12N data bits. Each address/ data input can be set to one of the two logic states. The programmed addresses/data are transmitted together with the header bits via an RF transmission medium upon receipt of a trigger signal. Solder bridges TJ1 and TJ2 are used to set the address and data bits.

The current consumption with a supply voltage of near 5.4V is about 10 mA. Since the current consumption is very little,the power can also be provided by standard button cells. Recommended antenna length is 17 cm for 433.92 MHz, and a stiff wire can be used as the antenna. Remember to mount the antenna (aerial) as close as possible to pin 4 (ANT) of the transmitter module.

RF Transmitter – Schematic Diagram

RF Transmitter Schematic Diagram

RF Receiver

This circuit complements the RF transmitter built aorund the small 434MHz transmitter module. The receiver picks up the transmitted signals using the 434Mhz receiver module. This integrated RF receiver module has been tuned to a frequency of 433.92MHz,exactly same as for the RF transmitter.

434MHz receiver module

434MHz  Receiver  module

The miniature 434MHz RF receiver module receives On-Off Keyed (OOK) modulation signal and demodulates it to digital signal for the next decoder stage. Local oscillator is made of Phase Locked Loop (PLL) structure. Technically, this is an Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) receiver module based on a single-conversion, super-heterodyne receiver architecture and incorporates an entire Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) for precise local oscillator (LO) generation. It can use in OOK / HCS / PWM modulation signal and demodulate to digital signal.

The receiver module has eight (4+4) pins. Apart from three “ground (GND) ” and two “Vcc” pins, there are two pins (one for Digital Data & other for Linear Data) for data output. Last is the RF input (ANT) pin.

Pin Assignment of the 434MHz Receiver module

Pin Assignment of the  434MHz  Receiver module

Pin Connections

  • 1 Antenna
  • 2 Ground
  • 3 Ground
  • 4 Vcc
  • 5 Vcc
  • 6 Linear Data (Normally NOT used)
  • 7 Digital Data (Normally Used)
  • 8 Ground

The “coded” signal transmitted by the transmitter is processed at the receiver side by the decoder IC HT12F from Holtek. VR1 and R1 are used to tweak the oscillator frequency of the decoder to that of the transmitter. Any possible variations due to component tolerences and/or a different supply voltage can be compensated by this arrangement. HT12F is capable of decoding informations that consist of N bits of address and 12N bits of data. HT12F decoder IC receives serial addresses and data from the HT12E encoder that are transmitted by the RF transmitter module. HT12D compare the serial input data three times continuously with the local addresses.

If no error or unmatched codes are found, the input data codes are decoded and then transferred to the output pins. The “Valid Transmission” (VT) pin also goes high to indicate a valid transmission.

For proper operation, a pair of HT12E/HT12F ICs with the same number of addresses and data format should be chosen. The data bits are set up using solder bridges RJ1 and RJ2. Output of the decoder is brought out on a pinheader K1 , making the logical signal available to circuits that need it. This output is also fed to the relay driver transitor T1. The RF Receiver circuit can be powered from a standard 5VDC supply. Just as for the RF Transmiitter, the aerial (17 cm for 433.92 MHz) has to be mounted as close as possible to the RF IN (ANT) pin of the 434MHz RF receiver module.

RF Receiver – Schematic Diagram

RF Receiver Schematic Diagram


  • RF transmitter circuit can be safely powered from DC 4.5V to 6V power supply. Here, diode D1 is added to introduce a 0.65V drop, but this is not very crucial
  • The 434 MHz RF module (Tx &Rx) is available from many sources. Connection terminals are usually labelled on the PCB. In case of any doubt, refer datasheets of the RF modules
  • In practice, the transmitter is usually powered by batteries. But you can power the receiver from an onboard /external dc supply too. In this case, make an optional “noise filter” arrangement , as shown here, to “clean” the 5V power rails of the 434MHz RF receiver module

optional “noise filter” circuit

optional noise filter circuit


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