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# 555 Duty Cycle Control

Here is a simple oscillator circuit that varies the duty cycle over a wide range without affecting the frequency. It is a variation of the simple 555 astable oscillator. Initially, I told a reader that there was no standard 555 circuit that could do this, but then the grey matter started working. The use of an air-variable capacitor for frequency control is a mind-blower—nothing short of a time warp!

555 Duty Cycle Control Schematic

Overview

When potentiometer R1 is centered, operation is obvious and the duty cycle is 50%. However, as R1 is rotated in either direction the charge time and discharge times vary accordingly. The two sides of R1 have independent steering diodes (D1 & D2). C1 & C2 make up the timing capacitor. Pins 2 & 6 of the 555 are the upper and lower thresholds of the input comparators. The charge /discharge voltage is taken from pin 3 because it has rail-to-rail voltage swing, and the open collector output (pin 7) cannot do this. The rectangular waveform output is taken from pin 7 instead. R3 is the pull-up resistor.

If constant frequency is desired, C1 could be padded for the correct frequency. However, most experimenters also want variable frequency. Since R1 cannot be varied in total resistance, it cannot vary the frequency. R2 could vary the frequency, but would also affect the duty cycle ratio limits as well. The only practical means of obtaining variable frequency is to vary C1.

Mathematical proof

Q = I * T – where Q is the charge, I is charge current and T is charge time

Q = C * V – where Q is charge, C is capacitance, and V is voltage across the capacitor

∴ I * T = C * V

E = I * R – where E is voltage I is current and R is resistance

∴ I * T = C * I * R – because E is simply another expression for V

T = C * R – dividing by I—we have now proved that charge time is directly proportional to R

So we have a charge resistance and a discharge resistance, the sum of which is constant and equal to the R1 potentiometer total resistance (1 to 3). Therefore, the sum of the charge and discharge times is also constant. Since F = 1/T, the frequency is also be constant.

In other words, the two resistances are complementary and the two time periods are likewise complementary.

The Air Variable Capacitor

The old-fashioned air variable capacitor is old and klunky. While DigiKey offers no such product, these devices remain available on eBay as used or old stock. Every serious experimenter should have one of these. The one I would buy is a 3-gang 440pf. Wired in parallel the total capacitance is 1320pf. Physical size limitations prevent higher capacitances.

Actually, it is fun to play with air variable capacitors.

High impedances

To obtain a reasonably low frequency, R1 had to be selected to have as high a resistance as possible. 2M is the highest value pot I had on hand. A 5M would also be a good selection. To function under such high impedance conditions, I selected the TLC555 CMOS 555. A further advantage of this device is that it has rail-to-rail output voltage—something that the bipolar 555 cannot do.

Limits of accuracy

The accuracy tends to degrade when the slew rate at C1 exceeds about 0.25V/uS. When this happens, the propagation delay of the comparators becomes significant and the frequency drops somewhat. This causes the peaks of the saw-tooth waveform to “skid” past the thresholds before the output switches polarity. This forces the maximum frequency to be lower than about 50kHZ for 50% duty cycle, or lower than 2kHZ with 98% duty cycle. To maintain 1 or 2% frequency accuracy the duty cycle range must drop as frequency increases.

Bench test set-up

Oscillographs

For the future

Novel VCO circuit

Glossary of undocumented words (for our ESL friends)

Klunky – adjective – variation of clunky – big, cumbersome, ugly, outmoded…

##### Related Tutorials

• WW

Hi. Thank you for sharing. I want the supply voltage to be 3v-5v and the frequency fixed at the best (lowest to Highest %) duty cycle. Please help with component values

• raj

can we use NE555 instead of TLC555

• raj

hey plz explain dis circuit. i am not understanding it. and also tell me where should the capacitor c3 be connected . i am not getting air variable capacitor. what can i use instead of that… plz reply. thanks.

• Jim Keith

Not this simple, nor in this design, but fully doable. The easiest way to get variable frequency is via a voltage controlled oscillator. The easiest way to obtain variable pulse width is to clock a monostable multivibrator via another oscillator and make the monostable timeout a function of a DC voltage

• Lightning

Hello, thank you for your reply. Yes I understand this is not normally possible as you stated, I was just referencing the thread and your solution is very clever.

Basically for what I’m trying to do I need the output of the 555 to roughly be high 95% of the time and only a brief (5%) moment of it being low. The opposite would also be satisfactory, ie low 95% of the time and high 5% of the time. Although I would prefer the former. This would need to be fixed regardless of how I vary the frequency. I will be experimenting on doing this using two chips (556) but I am more interested in doing this with a single chip, I’ll explain why.

I’m using the 555 as the clock in a “baby 10 sequencer” type of configuratio along with an audio frequency VCO and a 4017. The 555 clocks the 4017 and each output of the 4017 goes through a pot then to a VCO. The 555 is currently performing at about 1:1 duty cycle and each time the 555 changes from high to low or vice versa it causes a slight voltage variation at the VCO power rails which makes it change in tone. No matter what I do I can’t seem to completley eliminate this parasitic voltage variation. This is being used as a musical instrument so each step of the sequencer must stay in tune until the next one. Since this being caused by the current draw variations of the 555, I would like to have it go low at the very last split second so the change in tone is not noticeable to the listener. By the time the next step comes along the 555 is back to high. Although using two chips would resolve the duty cycle issue there would still be one of those chips running in a similar mode to what I have currently, which means there would be no point there would still be one chip drawing curent in the same way my current set up is. I really hope I am explaining myself here, it is a bit difficult to explain but I hope you get what I’m trying to say. To keep it short I need to be able to do this using a single chip. Fixed duty cycle where the 555 is high 95% of the time or more and only a very brief moment of it being low.

• Jim Keith

In the opening paragraph, I stated “not NORMALLY possible.” The 555, while versatile, does not do everything easily. Then you reference Mr. Marion’s circuit…

Do you need fixed pulse width or constant (low) duty cycle? By using two chips (oscillator and monostable) fixed pulse width and variable frequency is easily doable–may also be possible with a simple 555 circuit variation.

On the other hand, I have on my to do list another VCO circuit that works in my cranial simulator, but has not been tested in the real world. This has the promise of varying frequency without affecting duty cycle. It takes two chips (LM339 quad comparator and CD4011 quad NAND gate).

• Lightning

Hey there,

I was reading the thread in which you initially posted saying this is not possible. http://www.electroschematics.com/5834/pulse-generator-with-555/

I have a dilema, basically I need to build a circuit where the duty cycle is fixed around 95% but the frequency is variable. In the link I posted it seems that both changing either frequency or duty cycle will affect each other. In your circuit this problem seems to be solved but for various reasons I cannot use an air variable capacitor.

Do you know if there’s any circuits out there that will do what I need? In the circuit from the link you said its not possible to change duty cycle without affecting frequency but is the opposite also true? In other words will changing frequency also affect duty cycle?

hi, is there a simple way to provide voltage-controlled pulse-width or frequency in this design? -thx!

• joomunm

Thank a lot for this circuit.

• Jim Keith

Note that in the mathematical proof, the “delta” symbol should be the “therefore” symbol (3 dots in triangle). ASCII symbols map differently in different language alphabets so I can see how it got mixed up. The word processor I used has the 3 dot symbol available, but when published here ended up as the “delta” symbol.

One detail I missed: The oscillograph of the saw tooth waveform got loaded down by the DC resistance of the scope probe so I isolated the DC component with a capacitor. That is why it is centered at zero volts rather than Vcc/2.

• Jim Keith

Driving 2.5 to 5V LEDs from a 3 to 5V supply is possible but requires a more complex inductive discharge circuit and such is not compatible with variable frequency and/or PWM.

What I recommend is a voltage boost converter to invert your low voltage DC to regulated 12VDC. The 555 circuit then can operate without compromise.

Otherwise, I cannot fully understand your requirements.

In the near future, I wish to post such an inverter circuit that uses boost topology and an LM339 comparator to provide a regulated DC output voltage.

• WW

Thanks for the reply. Build the circuit last night and work perfect for my 12V LED.

I want to use LEDs with forward voltages between 2.5v-5v and without adding more components to drop the voltage from 12V. I want the supply voltage to be 3v-5v and the frequency fixed at the best (lowest to Highest %) duty cycle.
I will appreciate it very much if you could help with component values to work at 3V-5V.

This is the requirements for the driver I’m using: “Accurate linear dimming is compatible with PWM frequencies from 100 Hz to 5kHz for PWM duty cycle down to 1%. PWM frequencies up to 50 kHz can be supported for duty cycles greater than 10%”

• Jim Keith

The recommended capacitor type for C2 is a NP0 ceramic. These provide stable capacitance over a wide temp range. If it is to always operate at room temperature, an X7R ceramic may be used. Avoid Z50 types as breathing on them will vary capacitance (frequency in this case).

• WW

can i use the normal ceramic multilayer cap or do i need to use electric cap

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