Wall Wart Schematic

Of Wall Warts & Wall Transformers

With all the recent mania on capacitor limited power adapters at, the Wall Wart seems to be the neglected power source. Wall warts are small, convenient and have transformer isolation. With line isolation they are free from ground fault shock hazard. The power level and output voltage is ideal for most experimentation, and difficult to specify or obtain “X” capacitors are not required. It has been suggested that wall transformers were coined “wall warts” because they often take up 2 or 3 positions in a power outlet strip, but I say it is simply because they protrude from the wall like a “wart.” The name is simply a humorous alliteration.

What is a wall wart?

It is an electrical outlet mounted transformer-isolated low voltage power supply adapter with power cord and barrel connector (now also USB connector). Virtually all types low power AC operated electronic equipment use them in lieu of batteries. They have no power switch and remain live even when the electronic equipment is turned off. In spite of this, power consumption is low. One with a quiescent power dissipation of 1W consumes 9KWH per year or approximately $1.00 per year, depending upon cost of power. While there is a cost of use, it is for a very important, necessary function-equipment safety!

Wall wart Specifications

Wall wart adapters come in various voltage and current ratings (typically 6, 9, 12 or 15V). Some have AC output, while most are DC. A few even have regulated output voltage. Usually, the specifications are molded into the plastic case. The power rating runs from about 4 to 25W. Most contain 50/60hZ transformers—these are relatively heavy. Others are small, lightweight off-line switchers with tiny 100kHZ+ transformers. Since low frequency transformers are relatively expensive due to both material and labor, the off-line switcher versions are gradually taking over. The switcher also lends itself well to the now popular USB power supply standard that requires a regulated 5V.

In order to get higher power for printers and computers, in-line power packs are often used. Anyone who owns an HP printer knows what I am referring to. These also may be used by experimenters.

Related Products: Magnetics | Power Transformer | Transformer Misc

Barrel connector

There is no standard barrel connector—there are perhaps 10 different versions that look similar, but have various barrel diameters and internal pin dimensions. Also, there is no standard polarity—the center pin may be either positive or negative. To accommodate either polarity, it is not uncommon for DC equipment to have a 2nd bridge rectifier inside the unit. The next time you go to your electronics parts store, stock up on a few garden variety barrel connectors and receptacles—they are inexpensive and will make life easier in the future.

Never discard a wall wart

When discarding electronic equipment, save the wall-wart—it may be just what you need to power your next project. Should it be defective, save the cord and connector. Take the advice of a master pack-rat!

The North American Power Plug

While relatively crude by today’s international standards, the North American power plug has an interesting 100year history. Before its invention by Hubbell (about 1910), all lights, appliances and equipment were hard-wired to the electrical mains—rather unthinkable today.
Check out this interesting article—part 3 of a 4 part series:

Hubbell Electric continues to this day as a major electrical connector manufacturer.

While a brilliant inventor, I am sure that Harvey Hubbell never imagined the wall wart. In his era, there was no need for such a device as just about all equipment was big and klunky, and required lots of power.

Failure Modes

  • Open primary winding—very common failure mode, especially in 220VAC versions—discard!
  • End-of-life thermal fuse—this often strange looking, bullet-shaped device opens once and for all upon excessive temperature. It generally means that the transformer has a shorted winding—discard!
  • Open bridge rectifier—this has happened to me more than once—easy to repair
  • Open fuse—some have an internal lead-mounted fuse that is easy to repair
  • Broken wire at strain relief—very common failure—repairable, but generally uglified in appearance
  • Defective switcher—generally not repairable—discard! Perhaps save the little transformer, inductors, X capacitor opto-coupler and cord for future experimentation.

Repairing the wall wart

Probably only the DC units are repairable. Do not be afraid to look inside—open the case with a hack saw—if you can repair it, glue the case back together with RTV silicon rubber compound. Some actually have cases that are held together with self-tapping screws.

The earliest wall wart

photo of ww bell transformer
WW bell transformer

This bell transformer was (I believe) available in the 1960’s and was probably the first of the wall warts.

Out of my junk box

I found ten different wall warts—AC & DC and one regulated version. In the process of checking them out, I logged the specifications and did a simple voltage regulation test on each.

Specifications and regulation data

Wall Wart Specs

Voltage regulation

Wall Wart Voltage Regulation

Voltage regulation (no load to full load) for AC adapters ranges from 12 to 34%. For DC adapters, it is roughly double that or 32 to 80%. This may be seen in the regulation data. The DC adapters have inferior regulation due to the peak detection effect of the input filter capacitor—this is not a serious issue because nothing really operates at no-load, not does anything actually work on AC without rectifiers. For frame of reference (because % regulation tends to be confusing), 0% is perfect and 100% indicates that the voltage drops to half when loaded. Just keep in mind that wall warts tend to be sloppy and the equipment to which it is connected is designed to accept double the specified input voltage safely.

For experimentation, I like the AC versions because I can connect a voltage doubler rectifier to get much higher voltages. Also, if connected to half-wave rectifiers, I can easily obtain ±voltages.

A look inside #9

Wall Wart Disassembled

This nice unit was held together with self-tapping screws—just inviting me to take a peek inside. Visible are the transformer, rectifiers and filter capacitor. Absent is a safety bleeder—after the unit is turned off the large capacitor stores a substantial charge for many minutes. An arc occurs if the barrel connector happens to short against conductive material.

Schematic for #9 wall wart

Wall Wart Schematic

A look inside #8

Visible on the top: X capacitor (right), input rectifiers (2 of the 4 are visible), split bus capacitors, noise filter inductor, switching transistor (Q1), 145°C end of life thermal fuse behind (Q1), ferrite E-core transformer, opto-coupler for feedback (left foreground), schottky rectifier (left), output capacitor (left), and L-C filter (left).

Switcher Bottom

Visible on the bottom: SOT23-5 op amp (right central) and many size 0603 SMD components. No schematic on this one—too complex to trace out for this exercise.

Bench test set-up

Bench Setup

Connector trick

Connection Detail

Folding the proper stranded wire size back and inserting it into the barrel connector hole is a simple means of making electrical connection for the purpose of evaluation or experimentation.


The regulation was worse than I expected especially the DC versions. But the real surprise came from my setup. Did you see the huge 225W Ohmite potentiometer I used for an adjustable load? Well, it took me the longest time to figure out why the pot settings were so different between the AC and DC tests. It turned out to be the reactance of the potentiometer when used as a low-voltage AC load. In fact, the inductive reactance was substantially higher than the resistance and had a profound effect upon the load. It is in effect a low Q air core toroid. I may have studied well and had tons of experience, but do I know it all? no way! Still learning…


I hope that some influential person in the industry notices this and actually does something about it-while all wall warts have their specifications clearly indicated, no equipment anywhere (NONE-ZILCH) ever seems to indicate the specifications of the compatible wall wart. How must stuff we are unnecessarily adding to the waste stream each year due to this stupid oversight?

For the future

Off-line switcher schematic
Voltage doubler schematics


Join the conversation!

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  • Jim Keith

    Hi all,
    You would be appalled at my junk “box.” It is the loft over my two car garage. My son-in-law who is into construction, is concerned about exceeding the floor loading there. My childrens’ worst nightmare is that I will die before I get rid of all this stuff. LOL

    • C.Mitra

      Hi Ivor Cadiramen, cezar and Jim Keith,

      You three guys seem to be one of a kind. Include me in your club.
      I also don’t smoke or drink or gamble (and also am God fearing).
      I have such a large collection of “junk” that I literally sleep among my stuff!
      It is heart breaking for me if I have to throw out any of my stuff to make my place more hospitable. I have a huge collection of thermionic valves, old germanium transistors, and rare items like Selenium rectifiers of bygone days. Recently I called my testing engineer (I run a small electronics manufacturing firm) and showed him a selenium bridge rectifier and asked him to identify the component. The poor guy was totally lost and couldn’t identify it since he was not even born when these were used!
      Like Ivor, I also can’t throw away anything which can be remotely useful someday, I even keep the packaging of whatever I buy.
      And dear Jim, your children’s nightmare is also my nightmare….what’s going to happen to my stuff when I die? Even donating the stuff will not work, since I don’t think anybody in our next generation will be interested in a selenium rectifier or a couple of germanium transistors, it’s a world of tablets, phablets and robotics. Amen

  • Ivor Cadiramen

    P.S. – I never throw anything that I feel might someday become useful, my spare parts boxes are legion (but fun).

    • cezar

      Hi, Ivor

      I think we share the same passion, I too do not smoke or drink but spends late and early wee hours in my work bench tingkering on variuos electronic devices, whenever I see something that may be usefull or could be canibalised for parts, I keep them, there were one time that I have to throw some of them away because I am running out of storage space, my passion is in the RF side of electronics.


  • Ivor Cadiramen

    You are a man after my own heart. I do electronics as a hands-on hobby. My wife of 26 years fondly complains that she has to sleep in the workshop (we live in an apartment and I have no separate den of my own). I buy defunct computers and stereos from rummage sales for a couple of bucks and have great joy in dismantling them. Sine I do not smoke, drink or go clubbing, my wife tolerates my second love (she and the boys are my first). I would love to be part of a similar minded forum where we spend our free time tinkering around with our little parts (!!!).
    Please respond if you feel that this is possible.