This light sensor switch circuit allows the automatic connection of a lamp when the light is low (at nightfall) and will maintain the lamp ON for a certain period of time.
This time can be adjusted with P1 between 1 and 5 hours. The switch is a semiconductor relay S202DS2 and the oscillator is 4060.
From the moment that T4 and T5 are opened, relay’s LED start to light and powers the lamp. As soon as one of the transistors is blocked the lamp will go OFF. The phototransistor T3 will be the one that blocks T5 if there is light that falls on T3.
The T2’s base-emitter junction is connected in parallel with T3 and so will be blocked as long there is light. T2 will continuously reset IC1 whose counter outputs will be in “0” state.
When the night falls R7 provides base current for T2 and the transistor starts to conduct. The counter can now starts to count the impulses from the internal oscillator and in this time the light will bulb will stay lit. After a time, when the output of Q13 goes in state “1” T4 is blocked. This causes the relay’s LED to go off and the lamp too.
There is no need for external power supply because the light sensor switch is powered directly from the 220V mains. D1 … D5 diodes rectifies the voltage and C4 filters it.
C5 is working as a resistor so will need to have the working voltage of minimum 400V but the 630V is preferable.
The maximum peak-to-peak voltage is 600V, max on-state current is 8 Ampere and the input trigger current is 8 mA.
Caution! This circuit is powered directly from 220V. Attention will be given for appropriate isolation of the switch block.