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magnetic levitation circuit schematic

Magnetic Levitation Circuit

This is a simple magnetic levitation circuit which suspends objects a set distance below an electromagnet. The physics behind it is to simply provide a magnetic force which equal and opposite to the gravitational force on the object. The two forces cancel and the object remains suspended. Practically this is done by a circuit which reduces electromagnet force when an object gets to close, and increases it when the object is out of range.

Video presentation

How magnetic levitation is achieved

This magnetic levitator circuit works by comparing the signals from the sensors with the first op-amp and sending out a voltage proportional to the difference or “error”. The error signal is then sent through a compensation network which acts a high-pass filter, allowing quick changes in error to pass easier than slow changes. This is required to stabilize the control loop, and without it objects would just flutter close to the electromagnet due to the system being unstable. The signal is then amplified to it’s original amplitude, since the compensation network attenuated it, and finally drives the TIP122 Darlington transistor, which controls the electromagnet current.

The extra diodes around the transistor are to prevent damage to the transistor. The signal diode on the base prevents reverse biasing the base, which is damaging, while the two 1N4001’s give a path for the magnetizing current to flow when the electromagnet turns off. The optical components used aren’t too critical, as long as their wavelengths match up ok, and the detection/emission angles aren’t too narrow. The IR LEDs are TIL38, which are 940nm peak, have 15 degree spread, 35mW and 100mA max. The detectors are PT204-6B, which are IR phototransistors.

Read more informations about this interesting project on the source page http://uzzors2k.4hv.org/index.php?page=magneticlevitation

Magnetic Levitator Circuit Schematic

magnetic levitation circuit schematic

27 Comments

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  • Krishnakumar.G

    Is there any substitute for the photo detectors and the IR LED used here. Those which are used here are not available in my place.

  • Kirk

    May I know the wounding part of the Electro-Magnet???the number of turns and the size of the object that is being wounded with the wire and also the number of the wire which is being used. That is all I’m having problem with..Thanks Sir.. Awesome project!

    • P. Marian

      From the original source: “In my coil I used 70 meters of 0.45mm magnet wire. The coil can be wound on almost any ferrous metal rod if you’re not concerned with efficiency. Remember that keeping the surface area of the face small will keep the object centered better.”

  • aditi

    will you please give me details for designing pcb for the given circuit for “infrared magnetic levitation”

  • danish

    sir please give details of electromagnet ie. no of turns, and the use of led in this circuit

  • Jit

    Sir…i jst want to ask that hw much time will be required for this project…and is there any issue of not attaining the levitation easily…plzz rply with some more info…thnxx

  • gaurav jain

    dear sir,

    it a great idea but i am little confused about the position of the photo transistors. in circuit diagram, those should be placed vertically while in actual video, those are placed horizontally. could you please explain the reason.

    thanks

  • pankaj

    steps to make it
    . and lists of items required. plz

  • manoharan

    PLEASE MAGNET COIL DETAILS.THANKS

    • URVESH PATEL

      From the original source: “In my coil I used 70 meters of 0.45mm magnet wire. The coil can be wound on almost any ferrous metal rod if you’re not concerned with efficiency. Remember that keeping the surface area of the face small will keep the object centered better.”

  • vikash

    wat is the number of copper winding given to that electromagnet….pls rply me as soon as possible, i am undergoing this project….

  • cvsnaidu

    I am happy to join the club

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