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    This is a simple magnetic levitation circuit which suspends objects a set distance below an electromagnet. The physics behind it is to simply provide a magnetic force which equal and opposite to the gravitational force on the object. The two forces cancel and the object remains suspended. Practically this is done by a circuit which reduces electromagnet force when an object gets to close, and increases it when the object is out of range.

    Video presentation

    How magnetic levitation is achieved

    This magnetic levitator circuit works by comparing the signals from the sensors with the first op-amp and sending out a voltage proportional to the difference or “error”. The error signal is then sent through a compensation network which acts a high-pass filter, allowing quick changes in error to pass easier than slow changes. This is required to stabilize the control loop, and without it objects would just flutter close to the electromagnet due to the system being unstable. The signal is then amplified to it’s original amplitude, since the compensation network attenuated it, and finally drives the TIP122 Darlington transistor, which controls the electromagnet current.

    The extra diodes around the transistor are to prevent damage to the transistor. The signal diode on the base prevents reverse biasing the base, which is damaging, while the two 1N4001’s give a path for the magnetizing current to flow when the electromagnet turns off. The optical components used aren’t too critical, as long as their wavelengths match up ok, and the detection/emission angles aren’t too narrow. The IR LEDs are TIL38, which are 940nm peak, have 15 degree spread, 35mW and 100mA max. The detectors are PT204-6B, which are IR phototransistors.

    Read more informations about this interesting project on the source page http://uzzors2k.4hv.org/index.php?page=magneticlevitation

    Magnetic Levitator Circuit Schematic

    magnetic levitation circuit schematic

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    26 Responses to "Magnetic Levitation Circuit"

    1. Sushant ranjan says: on March 8, 2011 at 4:57 pm

      I really liked this idea.Can I get a complete list of the components used in it?

    2. Please go to http://uzzors2k.4hv.org/index.php?page=magneticlevitation here you will find all the addtional info.

    3. I am happy to join the club

    4. wat is the number of copper winding given to that electromagnet….pls rply me as soon as possible, i am undergoing this project….


      • URVESH PATEL says: on February 9, 2014 at 4:21 pm

        From the original source: “In my coil I used 70 meters of 0.45mm magnet wire. The coil can be wound on almost any ferrous metal rod if you’re not concerned with efficiency. Remember that keeping the surface area of the face small will keep the object centered better.”

    6. steps to make it
      . and lists of items required. plz

    7. dear sir,

      it a great idea but i am little confused about the position of the photo transistors. in circuit diagram, those should be placed vertically while in actual video, those are placed horizontally. could you please explain the reason.


    8. Sir…i jst want to ask that hw much time will be required for this project…and is there any issue of not attaining the levitation easily…plzz rply with some more info…thnxx

    9. sir please give details of electromagnet ie. no of turns, and the use of led in this circuit

    10. will you please give me details for designing pcb for the given circuit for “infrared magnetic levitation”

    11. May I know the wounding part of the Electro-Magnet???the number of turns and the size of the object that is being wounded with the wire and also the number of the wire which is being used. That is all I’m having problem with..Thanks Sir.. Awesome project!

      • From the original source: “In my coil I used 70 meters of 0.45mm magnet wire. The coil can be wound on almost any ferrous metal rod if you’re not concerned with efficiency. Remember that keeping the surface area of the face small will keep the object centered better.”

    12. Krishnakumar.G says: on August 7, 2012 at 6:14 pm

      Is there any substitute for the photo detectors and the IR LED used here. Those which are used here are not available in my place.

    13. KRISHNAKUMAR G says: on August 7, 2012 at 6:24 pm

      The photo transistor PT204-6B and the IR LED TIL38 are not available in our area.I request you to kindly advice me with the equivalents or substitutes. Can I use photo diodes instead of them?

    14. I have a question regarding about the coil here…did he wound the coil in a bolt without masking taping the bot??or he masking tape the bolt first then wound the copper wire???

    15. sir i want all components used in the project can u give addition info about this

    16. its good to have a new idea but can i know whats the use of this else where it can be applied to have its scope…???

    17. Can i use IC 741 for the project because we are told to use it in our project ? So what other changes will I have to make in circuit if I am using IC 741 ?

    18. My E-magnet have 22 ohm resistance. Can I use this circuit?

    19. how to get 12-0-12v d.c supply and how to test the circuit?
      please provide info on resistance of electromagnet?

    20. Does this need an AC supply or can I use a DC bipolar suppply?

    21. which software can be used for schematic simulation for this circuit?

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