This circuit is ideal to control the cooling fan of heat generated electronic gadgets like power amplifiers. The circuit switches on a fan if it senses a temperature above the set level. The fan automatically turns off when the temperature returns to normal.
The circuit uses an NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient) Thermister to sense heat. NTC Thermister reduces its resistance when the temperature in its vicinity increases.IC1 is used as a voltage comparator with two potential dividers in its inputs. Resistor R1 and VR1 forms one potential divider connected to the non inverting input of IC1 and another potential divider comprising R2 and the 4.7K Thermister supplying a variable voltage to the inverting input of IC1. VR1 is adjusted so as to give slightly lesser voltage at the non inverting input than the inverting input at room temperature. In this state, output of IC1 will be low and the Fan remains off. When the temperature near the Thermister increases, its resistance decreases and conducts. This drops the voltage at pin 2 of IC1 and its output becomes high. T1 then triggers and fan turn on. Red LED indicates that fan is running. Capacitor C1 gives a short lag before T1 turns on to avoid false triggering and to give proper bias to T1.DC fan can be the one used in Computer SMPS.
Keep the Thermistor near the heat sink of the Amplifier PCB and switch on the amplifier for 10 minutes. Then adjust VR1 till the Fan stop running.When the temperature rises, Fan will automatically switch on.