This simple Mock Flasher LED simulates the indicator of a sophisticated Alarm system. It can be placed in doors, gates and vehicles to confuse intruders. The circuit is too simple using a Unijunction transistor as an oscillator.
Uni junction transistor (UJT) is an electronic semiconductor device that has only one junction. The UJT has three terminals: an emitter (E) and two bases (B1 and B2). The base is formed by lightly doped n-type bar of silicon. Two ohmic contacts B1 and B2 are attached at its ends. The emitter is of p-type and it is heavily doped. The resistance between B1 and B2, when the emitter is open-circuit is called inter-base resistance. The 2N2646 is the most commonly used version of the UJT.
UJT Pin Connection -Bottom View
Working of UJT
The UJT is biased with a positive voltage between the two bases. This causes a potential drop along the length of the device. When the emitter voltage is driven approximately one diode voltage above the voltage at the point where the P diffusion (emitter) is, current will begin to flow from the emitter into the base region. Because the base region is very lightly doped, the additional current (actually charges in the base region) causes conductivity modulation which reduces the resistance of the portion of the base between the emitter junction and the B2 terminal. This reduction in resistance means that the emitter junction is more forward biased, and so even more current is injected. Overall, the effect is a negative resistance at the emitter terminal. This is what makes the UJT useful, especially in simple oscillator circuits.
Working of Mock Flasher LED
UJT 2N 2646 is used as a simple oscillator with the oscillating components R1 and C2. The LED is connected between the base2 (B2) of the UJT and the ground. Resistor R2 restricts current through the UJT as well as LED. At power on, capacitor C2 charges through R1 and when it fully charges, emitter of UJT forward biases and current flows into the base. LED then lights. The discharge of C2 is followed by its charging again creating an oscillating cycle so that LED flashes.