This circuit delivers an initial voltage of 2.5V per cell to rapidly charge a car battery. The charging current decreases as the battery charges and when the current drops to 180 mA the charging circuit reduces the output voltage to 2.35 V per cell, leaving the battery in a fully charged state. This lower voltage prevents the battery from overcharching, which will shorten its life.
The LM301A compares the voltage drop across R1 with a 18 mV reference set by R2. The comparator’s output controls the voltage regulator, and produce the lower float voltage when the battery-charging current, passing through R1, drops bellow 180 mA.
Temperature compensation helps prevent overcharging, the LM334 temperature sensor should be placed near or on the battery. Because batteries need more compensation at lower temperatures, change R5 to 30Ω for a tc of -5mV/0C per cell il this circuit will be used at temperatures below – 200C.
The charger’s input voltage must be filtered dc that is at least 3V higher than the maximum required output voltage. Choose a regulator for the maximum current needed: LM371 for 2A, LM350 for 4A, LM338 for 8A. At 250C and with no load, adjust R7 for a Vout of 7.05V, and adjust R8 for a Vout of 14.1V.